Snakes and lizards have hemipenes, paired elongated outpocketings of the caudal wall of the cloaca that extend under the skin at the base of the tail. Duckweed reproduces by two methods, budding and seeding. You will also like... Abiotic Factors – Water Conditions. A still body of water may be disturbed by a variety of factors. Reproductive Adaptations 2.1.2 Analyze how various organisms accomplish the following life functions through adaptations with particular environments and that these adaptations have evolved to ensure survival and reproductive success. Sperm are small, mobile, low-cost cells that occur in high numbers. Fertilization among vertebrates may be external or internal, but internal fertilization is not always correlated with viviparity or the presence of intromittent (copulatory) organs. The latter, uncommon among fishes, amphibians, and birds, are present in all reptiles (except Sphenodon) and mammals. That of monotremes is of the reptilian type, nonprotrusible and in the cloacal floor. A penis bone (baculum, os priapi) is present in various degrees of development in many mammals. In some mammals (e.g., bats) it is pendulous; and in armadillos it may extend one third the length of the body during copulation. Seeding: At the beginning of winter, seeds are created from the old flower pods and sink to the bottom of water for germination. Know the different stag.. Cell respiration is the process of creating ATP. This is an internally assessed project. In at least one teleost species, the female has a copulatory organ that she inserts into the genital pore of the male for receiving sperm. You can set up to 7 reminders per week. Diversity of Animal Reproductive Anatomy. When the blood vessels within the spongy bodies are filled with blood, the penis swells, the retractor muscle relaxes, and the genital tubercle protrudes from the vent to serve as an intromittent organ. Some animals produce offspring through asexual reproduction while other animals produce offspring through sexual reproduction. Set your study reminders. In hyenas, the clitoris is large and often mistaken for a penis, and female scrotal pouches, lacking gonads, are present. Some birds have a vestigial penis. The muscular cloaca of the male caecilian, however, can be everted (turned outward) to protrude into that of the female. In birds, the terminal segments of the spermatic ducts are erectile and ejaculatory, and in fish the posterior end of whatever duct transports sperm may be ejaculatory. Occasionally, the intromittent organ is an asymmetrical tube that matches the asymmetrical genital opening of the female. Except in ruminants (i.e., cud-chewing animals, such as cattle and deer), cetaceans, and some rodents, the penis terminates in a glans penis, a swelling of the corpus spongiosum that caps the ends of the corpora cavernosa and contains the urinogenital aperture. One of its most interesting adaptations is its sixth sense; electroreception. When a retractor muscle is present (wolf, fox, dog), it relaxes as erection occurs. Premium Membership is now 50% off! During copulation the muscle relaxes, the pocket turns inside out and protrudes through the vent in an erect condition. The blood sugar level is regulated by two hormones. Each hemipenis is held in place by a retractor muscle. The clasper, supported by modified fin cartilages, contains a groove along which sperm are conveyed into the uterus and is raised, or erected, by muscles at its base. Black Friday Sale! The groove on the surface of the embryonic penis becomes enclosed in a tube along with the corpus spongiosum and two additional erectile masses, the corpora cavernosa. All birds have internal fertilization, although they are not viviparous; most lack intromittent organs. It is a permanent tubular extension of the cloaca and resembles a tail. Many animals are able to engage in certain behaviors which have no discernible function and may not be a part of adaptation. Reproductive adaptation. Erection of the mammalian penis is initiated typically by an increase in the volume of blood reaching the cavernous and spongy bodies, engorgement of the vessels, and consequent compression of the veins leaving the organ. The caudal tip of the penis protrudes into the cloaca as a genital tubercle, or glans penis. The male urodele deposits a spermatophore that the female picks up with the lips of her cloaca. Female mammals have an erectile penile organ known as the clitoris in the floor of the urinogenital sinus or vagina. The clitoris of female mammals often contains cartilage or bone. Reproductive adaptations. The mechanism behind this type of negative feedback control is descr.. The main focus is to compare how theses animals are different in the way the reproduce. Like a peacocks great tail feathers to attract a female. The latter begins on the pelvic floor as the bulb of the penis and contains a dilation of the urethra (urethral bulb). The spermatic duct opens on one side of the papilla. A specialized clitoris is present in female turtles, crocodiles, alligators, and a few species of birds in which the male has a penis. Still other teleosts have uncomplicated fleshy genital papillae that can be erected. The content on this website is for information only. Study Reminders . Crocodilians and chelonians (turtles) have a penis (phallus), a median thickening in the floor of the cloaca consisting of two cylinders of spongy vascular erectile tissue, the corpora spongiosa. The inner surface of the prepuce is moistened by preputial glands, and the external surface is sometimes covered with spines or hard scales, as in the cat, guinea pig, and wombat. In some cattle, a sigmoid, or S-shaped, flexure bends the penis, which otherwise would be too long to fit into the preputial sac.


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